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What are the chemicals that give fruity aromas?

Most of the desirable food aromas come from low to medium molecular weight organic compounds. Some examples of chemicals, and their use for both fragrances and flavours.
Chemical                                     Application 
butyl acetate                                     apple
isoamyl acetate                                   banana
hexyl acetate                                     pear
ethyl butyrate                                    pineapple
ethyl isovalerate                                 blueberry
ethyl 2-methylbutrate                             apple
ethyl hexanoate                                   pineapple
2-propenyl hexanoate                              pineapple
ethyl 2t-4c-decadienoate                          pear
1-octen-3-ol                                      mushroom
3-octanol                                         mushroom
2,6-dimethyl-2-heptanol                           freesia
2t-6c-nonadien-1-ol                               violet
decanal                                           citrus
acetoin                                           butter
2,3-butadione                                     butter
geraniol                                          flowery,             
                                                  roselike
linalool                                          lily of the  
                                                  valley
myrcenol                                          lime
dihydromyrcenol                                   lavender
citral                                            lemon
citronellal                                       balm mint
linalyl acetate                                   bergamot
limonene                                          lemon
alpha-terpineal                                   lilac
8-mercapto-p-menthan-3-one                        blackcurrant
1-p-methene-8-thiol                               grapefruit
3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-2-ol-1-one                 caramel
phenethyl alcohol                                 rose
phenethyl isoamyl ether                           chamomile
phenethyl acetate                                 rose
alpha-trichloromethylbenzyl acetate               rose
1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-butanone                    raspberry
4 methyl-2(2-methyl-1-propenyl)tetrahydropyran    rose
hexyl salicylate                                  azalea
benzyl acetate                                    jasmine
acetophenone                                      orange blossom 

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What is the most obnoxious smelling compound?

Many low molecular weight sulfur-containing compounds tend to induce adverse reactions in people, even if they have not encountered them before, eg the glandular emissions of skunk (n-butyl mercaptan, dicrotyl sulfide). Butyric acid reminds people of vomit, and cadaverine ( 1,5 Pentadiamine ) reminds people of rotten tissue, but without an earlier association they may not regard them as unusually obnoxious.
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What is the nicest smelling compound?

Aside from thinking about your stomach, then most people like the smell of flowers and citrus fruits. Their aromas usually consist of medium volatility compounds, often terpenes ( geraniol = (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6- octadiene-1-ol = rose aroma; linalool = 3,7-dimethyl-1,6 -octadiene-3-ol = bergamot or french lavender ). Many aromatic oils are mixtures of terpene esters ( oil of geranium = geraniol esters ) or aldehydes ( oil of lemon grass = citral = 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal ) The genuine flower smell is usually a blend of compounds, and detailed compositions of your favourite smell are often available in the journal " Perfumer and Flavorist "
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What is the most bitter compound?

Denatonium Benzoate = Bitrex, or even in some strange chemistry circles, N-[(2-[2,6-Dimethylphenyl)amino]-2-oxoethyl]-N,N-diethylbenzenemethan- aminium benzoate. It is added to toxic chemicals as a deterrent to accidental ingestion :-) What is the sweetest compound? According to Kirk-Othmer, an aspartic acid derivative ( RN = 61091-21-2 = DL-Serine (9CI), N-L-.alpha.-aspartyl-O-methyl-3-oxo-, 1-(1,3,3-trimethyl bicyclo(2.2.1)hept-2-yl) ester ), is 60X sweeter than saccharin, which is itself about 500X sweeter than sucrose. There could be something even more sweet?.
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